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10th all china games Jian pair 406 cropped

A Jian dual event (choreographed)

According to the International Wushu Federation, "Wushu taolu is a set of connecting stylized movements choreographed according to certain laws, embodying the philosophical connotation of attack and defense."

The taolu listed below are the compulsory routines for international Wushu competitions. According to Kung-Fu Wushu Western Australia, "International wushu competition is categorized by junior (18 and under) and senior (18 and over) level championships. In junior level events, the taolu routines are “compulsory” whereas each athlete performs identical movements and sequences that have been developed by the technical committee of the IWuF. Senior level events are competed using optional or “self choreographed” routines that can highlight the strengths of the individual athlete".

Contemporary Taolu Events Edit

Wushu events are performed using compulsory or individual routines in competition. Compulsory routines are those routines that have been already created for the athlete, resulting in each athlete performing basically the same set. Individual routines are routines that an athlete creates with the aid of his/her coach, while following certain rules for difficulty. In addition to events for individual routines, some wushu competitions also feature dual and group events. The dual event, also called duilian (对练), is an event in which there is some form of sparring with weapons, or without weapons or even using bare hands against weapons. The dual event is usually spectacular and actions are choreographed beforehand. The group event, also known as jiti (集体), requires a group of people to perform together and smooth synchronization of actions are crucial. Usually, the group event also allows instrumental music to accompany the choreography during the performance. The carpet used for the group event is also larger than the one used for individual routines.

Previously, international wushu competitions most often used compulsory routines, while high-level competitions in China most often used individual routines. However, after the 2003 Wushu World Games in Macau it was decided to opt for individual routines in international competition with nandu (难度; difficulty movements) integrating a maximum 2 point nandu score into the overall maximum score of 10.

There is some controversy concerning the inclusion of nandu in wushu because many of the movements created for the specific events are not originally movements used in those styles. In addition the number of injuries which have resulted from the inclusion of these nandu have caused many people to question their inclusion.

Wushu Taolu (Forms) Edit

Barehanded Edit

  • Changquan - Unarmed Taolu or Form (Long-Range Boxing)
  • Nanquan - Unarmed Taolu (Southern-Style Boxing)
  • Taijiquan - Unarmed Taolu (Taiji Boxing)

Short Weapons Edit

  • Daoshu - Sword Taolu (Broadsword)
  • Jianshu - Sword Taolu (Straight Sword)
  • Taijijian - Sword Taolu (Taiji Sword or Straight Two-Edged Sword)
  • Nandao - Sword Taolu (Southern Broadsword)

Long Weapons Edit

  • Gunshu - Staff Taolu Qiangshu - Spear Taolu
  • Nangun - Southern-Style Staff Taolu
  • Qianshu - Chinese Spear Taolu

Other Wushu Taolus (Forms) Edit

The majority of routines used in the sport are new, modernized recompilations of traditional routines. However, routines taken directly from traditional styles, including the styles that are not part of standard events, may be performed in competition, especially in China. These routines generally do not garner as many points as their modern counterparts, and are performed in events separate from the compulsory routine events. Among these, the more commonly seen routines include:

  • Baguazhang (八卦掌) – Eight-Trigrams Palm
  • Bajiquan (八極拳) – Eight Extremes Fist/Boxing
  • Chaquan (查拳) – Cha Fist/Boxing
  • Changquan (长拳) – Long fist
  • Chuojiao (戳腳) – Poking Feet
  • Ditangquan (地躺拳) – Ground-Prone Fist/Boxing
  • Fanziquan (翻子拳) – Tumbling Fist/Boxing
  • Houquan (猴拳) – Monkey Fist/Boxing
  • Huaquan (華拳) – Hua Fist/Boxing Nanquan (南拳) – Southern Fist
  • Paochui (炮捶) – Cannon Punch
  • Piguaquan (劈掛拳) – Chop-Hitch Fist/Boxing
  • Shequan (蛇拳) – Snake Fist/Boxing
  • Tantui (弹腿) – Spring Leg
  • Tanglanquan (螳螂拳) – Praying Mantis Fist/Boxing
  • Tongbeiquan (通背拳) – Through-the-Back Fist/Boxing
  • Wing Chun (Yongchunquan) – Eternal Spring
  • Xingyiquan (形意拳) – Shape-Intent Fist/Boxing
  • Yingzhuaquan (鷹爪拳) – Eagle Claw Fist/Boxing
  • Zuiquan (醉酒拳) – Drunken Fist/Boxing

Traditional weapons routines Edit

There is also a traditional weapons category, which often includes the following:

  • Changsuijian (長穗劍) – Long-Tasseled Sword
  • Shuangshoujian (雙手劍) – Two-Handed Sword
  • Jiujiebian (九節鞭) – Nine Section Whip
  • Sanjiegun (三節棍) – Three Section Staff
  • Shengbiao (繩鏢) – Rope Dart
  • Dadao (大刀) – Great Sword
  • Pudao (撲刀) – Horse Knife
  • Emeici (峨嵋刺) – Emei Daggers
  • Shuangdao (雙刀) – Double Broadsword
  • Shuangjian (雙劍) – Double Straight-Sword
  • Shuangbian (雙鞭) – Double Nine Section Whips
  • Shuanggou (雙鈎) – Double Hook-sword

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